The theories of quantum computation suggest that every physical object, even the universe, is in some sense a quantum computer

Quantum Computing

Computing technology is revolutionized by the time and we have seen a lot of changes and advancements. From room-sized computing machine to hand-held Personal Computers and smartphones. Now the time has come, Over the 50 years of advancements in mathematics, materials science and computer science have transformed quantum computing from theory to reality. Quantum computing is the area of study focused on developing computer technology based on the principles

of quantum theory, which explains the nature and behavior of energy and matter on the quantum (atomic and subatomic) level.

Quantum computers is completely different from our regular computers, Quantum computer not just a powerful version of our current computers which has new generation of processor or an updated Operating System. It is a totally different concept, just like a light bulb is not a powerful version of candles, right? They both are different things, using candles we cannot make a light bulb. It has its own mechanism and concepts.

Common digital computing requires that the data be encoded into binary digits, each of which is always in one of two definite states 0 or 1. Each piece of information and data get store in common computers in binary form(by using 0 or 1) but that is not the case with quantum computing ,it uses a combination of both the states 0 and 1 or more scientifically it is a superposition of 0 and 1 which are called as **Qubit. ** A **Qubit** is a short form for ‘**quantum bit**’ which has special properties and works on two main principles of quantum physics: **superposition **and **entanglement**. A Qubit can exist with some probability of being 0 and some probability of being 1.

As Quantum computing is based on **quantum mechanics** law – Superposition and entanglement. A **Qubit** has more fluid, non-binary identity. It can be a superposition or a combination of **0** or **1**, with some probability of being **0** and some probability of being **1**. Its identity is on a spectrum of 0 and 1. For example it could have be 70 of being **0** and 30 percent chance of being **1**. Or it 80 – 20, 54 – 46 percent possibilities are endless. During the game, quantum computer creates this fluid combination, a mixer of heads and tails that is combination 0 and 1 and at the end it can unmix the **0** and **1**, perfectly recovering the heads so that you loose and Quantum computer wins.

“But, there are some critical problems that conventional computers cannot solve. For example, a caffeine molecule in a cup of coffee is complex enough that no traditional computer would never be able to crack and understand its detailed structure and properties. This is of the challenges that quantum computers have the potential to tackle”.

– IBM Researchers

**Quantum computers** are incredibly powerful
machines, they may untangle the complex molecular and chemical bonding
structures. They can help in the discovery of new medicines and materials.
Takes *artificial intelligence* to
next level by making *machine learning* much
more powerful.

**Quantum Communication**

Many research groups are working on quantum communication systems. They allow a sender and receiver to agree on a code without ever meeting in person. The uncertainty principle, an inescapable property of the quantum world, ensures that if an eavesdropper tries to monitor the signal in transit it will be disturbed in such a way that the sender and receiver are alerted.

**Quantum Cryptography**

The expected capabilities of quantum computation promise great improvements in the world of cryptography. Ironically the same technology also poses current cryptography techniques a world of problems. The implications of Shor’s factoring algorithm on the world of cryptography is staggering. The ability to break the RSA coding system will render almost all current channels of communication insecure.

**Artificial
Intelligence**

The theories of quantum computation suggest that every physical object, even the universe, is in some sense a quantum computer. If this is the case, then according to Turing’s work which says that all computers are functionally equivalent, computers should be able to model every physical process. Ultimately this suggests that computers will be capable of simulating conscious rational thought. These theories provoke a minefield of philosophical debate, but maybe the quantum computer will be the key to achieving true artificial intelligence. Quantum computers are still in its infancy, although the future of quantum computing looks promising, we have only just taken our first steps to actually realising a quantum computer. There are many hurdles which need to be overcome before we can begin to appreciate the benefits they may deliver. Researchers around the world are racing to be the first to achieve a practical system, a task which some scientists think is futile. David Deutsch – one of the ground breaking scientists in the world of quantum computing – said himself that perhaps ‘their most profound effect may prove to be theoretical’.